View Full Version : HELP: STAR Approach
05-11-2003, 11:52 PM
I've been trying to read whatever material I can find on STAR(s) (which isnt much that I can find anyway). Since I had read and educated myself on this topic and I decided to look for some random STAR(s) and see if I could fly them. Grrr..that was a mistake. I couldnt even properly figure'em out! As an example, the STAR RW26 ELTOK 1H approach (Arlanda, Sweden). This one I found on: http://www.scandva.org/recruitment/files/essamap.zip
Here is my question:
1. On the Arlanda STAR RW26, how do I know what flight levels I need to be at on various parts of the STAR?
2. It states that once at IAF, radar vectors will be given. How do one simulate that in FSIM once the IAF has been reached, or do I just sorta "fly the pattern from there"?
3. More general question...how often are these types of approaches made in real life anyway? Arent you typically vectored in to final most of the time?
I've read the sample article from Computer Pilot magazine on STAR but it seems like most STAR(s) are different...
Help much appreciated!
05-12-2003, 01:36 AM
LAST EDITED ON May-12-03 AT 02:33AM (EDT)[p]http://www.sweden.vacc.nu/Images/upl/ESSA.pdf
05-12-2003, 02:15 AM
Well, this one seems to contain ALL the information.
Thanks for the link!
05-12-2003, 02:41 AM
LAST EDITED ON May-12-03 AT 02:56AM (EDT)[p]http://www.sweden.vacc.nu/Pilots/charts.php
I fly in the U.S., here you fly the arrival as depicted on the chart and you will be vectored for the approach at some point during the star.
You will normally only get a star when going into busy airports, the rest of the time you will fly to the field and pick up a visual or you get vectored to final or at some airports you will have to fly a full instrument approach when atc cannot maintain radar contact.
05-12-2003, 03:29 AM
>how do I know what
>flight levels I need to
>be at on various parts
>of the STAR?
The approach controller (or sometimes called director) will tell you.
>2. It states that once at
>IAF, radar vectors will be
>given. How do one simulate
>that in FSIM once the
>IAF has been reached, or
>do I just sorta "fly
>the pattern from there"?
I would highly recommend you joining VATSIM (http://www.vatsim.net). They provide real ATC. Forget about this so called ATC that comes with FS2002: It's just ##### (or let's say it's strongly optimizable ;-) ).
>3. More general question...how often are
>these types of approaches made
>in real life anyway? Arent
>you typically vectored in to
>final most of the time?
STARs are used most of the time. But STARs don't guide you into final. Normally they end at a certain holding position, i.e. overhead the "ERKEN NDB (383)" at the end of the "ELTOK 1T" arrival for RWY 26 at Stockholm Arlanda. That means if ATC doesn't pick you up while proceeding your STAR that you have to enter the holding and wait for the controller to give you further instructions. Only if traffic situation allows it, you sometimes get direct vectors to the active RWY.
>but it seems like most
>STAR(s) are different...
They are because all the airports are different and all the geographical and enviromental conditions are different and the average amount of traffic varies as well.
(..., accidentally born in Germany, this little country between Lybia and Cuba.)
05-12-2003, 08:31 AM
Best way to think of a star is like the directions that you see printed on leaflets or on web sites for big events. You know the type, Comming from the North to Big Fun take route 66, then exit 3, etc. etc. Well they don't tell you where to go once you get into the front gate. The STAR is like the directions to get to the entrance to the parking lot. The approach plate takes you from there. The purpose of the STAR is two fold. First is so you are familar with the routing you will receive and know where you are going and more important, if the controller screws up badly or there is loss of radar or communication.
IFR flights are almost always under positive radar control at all times. There are exceptions in like the western U.S. but usually you have someone watching and directing you. You get vectored to the final approch course except at smaller airports usually uncontrolled fields where you would use the full procedure. A symphony has a conductor, but each person playing an instrument has the score. You could memorize the score, but given the number of possible approaches...good luck.
Normally STARS are used to keep a nice neat orderly flow of traffic. However throw in weather and the flow of traffic then looks like a covey of quail flushed from hiding. Fast moving thunderstorms are avoided as even a "small" thunderstorm can kill a 747 close to the ground.
STARs are different for the same reason directions to say Walt Disney World, and Disneyland are differnt. Differnt roads, different navigation aids, etc.
05-12-2003, 11:06 AM
>A symphony has a conductor, but
>each person playing an instrument
>has the score.
Wonderful sentence, really!
(..., accidentally born in Germany, this little country between Lybia and Cuba.)
05-12-2003, 11:12 AM
Thanks everyone for all the help. This answers all my questions (for now anyway:)). I guess I should clarify what I meant by all STAR(s) appear to be different....I was talking about the charts themselves (i.e. how the STAR is graphically depicted) and not the fact that all approaches are different. At first glance they didnt seem to have standard ways of showing the approaches but having looked at some other charts now its becoming easier and easier to "figure out" how to interpret them.
Again, thanks for all the help!
05-12-2003, 12:20 PM
The look depends on who is issuing the charts and how often they are revised. The FAA charts and Jepp look different. The ones from our friends up in the great white north look very similar, but have differences that could get you into trouble.
Best tip I have is to read it before hand. Doing it on the fly is a sure way to screw up. One of the favorite tactics of instrument instructors is to tell a student that "We are going to Big Airport Muni next lesson", knowing the student has studied all the charts the night before and then they change their mind after your airborne and "suggest" going somewhere you never heard of. Its a tough task and one you end up doing in real life sometimes.
05-13-2003, 04:04 PM
Having looked at charts some of them dont route you to final. This is fine as they state that once at the IAF expect radar vectors to final. Question is though, once I reach the IAF and my COM goes out I can obviously not be routed anywhere. In a situation like this, what is the procedure for getting to final I wonder? I mean the basic idea of a STAR (as stated in replies above) seems to be that in case something goes wrong, you will always know how to down without "interfering" with other planes.
05-13-2003, 04:13 PM
§ 91.185 IFR operations: Two-way radio communications failure.
(a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio communications failure when operating under IFR shall comply with the rules of this section.
(b) VFR conditions. If the failure occurs in VFR conditions, or if VFR conditions are encountered after the failure, each pilot shall continue the flight under VFR and land as soon as practicable.
(c) IFR conditions. If the failure occurs in IFR conditions, or if paragraph (b) of this section cannot be complied with, each pilot shall continue the flight according to the following:
(1) Route. (i) By the route assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
(ii) If being radar vectored, by the direct route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route, or airway specified in the vector clearance;
(iii) In the absence of an assigned route, by the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance; or
(iv) In the absence of an assigned route or a route that ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance, by the route filed in the flight plan.
(2) Altitude. At the highest of the following altitudes or flight levels for the route segment being flown:
(i) The altitude or flight level assigned in the last ATC clearance received;
(ii) The minimum altitude (converted, if appropriate, to minimum flight level as prescribed in § 91.121(c)) for IFR operations; or
(iii) The altitude or flight level ATC has advised may be expected in a further clearance.
(3) Leave clearance limit. (i) When the clearance limit is a fix from which an approach begins, commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the expect-further-clearance time if one has been received, or if one has not been received, as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) estimated time en route.
(ii) If the clearance limit is not a fix from which an approach begins, leave the clearance limit at the expect-further-clearance time if one has been received, or if none has been received, upon arrival over the clearance limit, and proceed to a fix from which an approach begins and commence descent or descent and approach as close as possible to the estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC) estimated time en route.
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